lecturer 1 [d͡ʑ] in isolation lecturer 2 [d͡ʑ] in isolation lecturer 3 [d͡ʑ] in isolation
Based on Maciołek & Tambor (2012)
Voiced: the vocal folds are in contact, the air coming from the lungs causes them to vibrate.
Alveolo-palatal: the tongue blade gets close behind the alveolar ridge, the middle of the tongue lies against the hard palate in the highest part of its vault. The lips are slightly rounded.
Affricate: the air from the lungs first meets an obstacle in the form of a closure in the oral cavity (cf. plosives), which subsequently changes into a narrow passage (cf. fricatives).