positional variant (does not occur in isolation)
Based on Maciołek & Tambor (2012)
Voiced: the vocal folds are in contact, the air coming from the lungs causes them to vibrate.
Retroflex: the tip of the tongue touches the upper palate behind the alveolar ridge. At the same time the back of the tongue rises towards the soft palate. The lips are slightly rounded.
Palatalized: the middle of the tongue gets closer to the hard palate as a secondary articulation.
Affricate: the air from the lungs first meets an obstacle in the form of a closure in the oral cavity (cf. plosives), which subsequently changes into a narrow passage (cf. fricatives).