lecturer 1 [d] in isolation lecturer 2 [d] in isolation lecturer 3 [d] in isolation
Based on Maciołek & Tambor (2012)
Voiced: the vocal folds are in contact, the air coming from the lungs causes them to vibrate.
Alveolar: the front part of the tongue lies against the alveolar ridge and the teeth.
Non-palatalized: the middle of the tongue is in a neutral position, it does not take part in the articulation.
Plosive: a closure in the oral cavity and of the soft palate obstructs the airflow from the lungs, the air-pressure rises, subsequently, there is a quick release of the closure in the oral cavity, i.e. a plosion.