lecturer 1 [v] in isolation lecturer 2 [v] in isolation lecturer 3 [v] in isolation
Based on Maciołek & Tambor (2012)
Voiced: the vocal folds are in contact, the air coming from the lungs causes them to vibrate.
Labiodental: the lower lip gets closer to the upper teeth.
Non-palatalized: the middle of the tongue is in a neutral position, it does not take part in the articulation.
Fricative: there is a narrow passage between the articulators, the air from the lungs hits the edge of the passage and creates noise.